Affiliations: * Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, U.S.A.
** National Institute of Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry
of Public Health, 88/7 Tiwanon Road, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand
In Thailand, water-storage jars, barrels, drums, pails, and tanks constitute vast developmental sites for Aedes aegypti in urban, semiurban, and rural areas. Earthen water jars, cement jars, and concrete tanks constitute the greatest proportion of artificial containers where Ae. aegypti breed. This species is a major vector of the causal agents of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, and vector control by larviciding is one of the main approaches to disease control. At present, temephos sand granules (SG) (1%) are used in large-scale community-based larviciding programs. Because of the use of this larvicide over the past 30 years, the likelihood exists that Ae. aegypti already has become resistant to this larvicide. To develop more options for control and make them available for use, we evaluated VectoBac tablets (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis [Bti] 5%) and a new formulation of zeolite granules (ZG) of temephos (1%) and compared these formulations for efficacy with temephos SG (1%) in water-storage jars. In these tests, we used 48 identical glazed earthen water-storage jars (200-liter capacity) and developed quantitative sampling procedures for larvae, pupae, and pupal skins. Pupal skins were the easiest to count and this technique was used for the 1st time for assessing emergence of adults in water-storage containers. Three water regimens were used: full jars, half-full jars, and full jars emptied half way and refilled weekly. The 3 formulations with 3 regimens of water were assessed over a period of 6 months. VectoBac tablets at the dosage of 1 tablet or 0.37 g per 50 liters of water provided excellent control for about 112 days in full water jars. In the other 2 water regimens, VectoBac gave excellent control for 90 days. The 2 temephos formulations at theoperational rate of 5 g per 50 liters of water were equal in efficacy, yielding almost 100% control for more than 6 months. Unlike temephos SG, the temephos ZG had no objectionable odor. Both the temephos ZG and Bti tablets increased clarity of the water, a feature desired by the users. Lack of odor and depression of turbidity are important attributes of Bti tablets and temephos ZG.