Affiliations: * Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, U.S.A.
** National Institute of Health, Department of Medical Sciences,
Ministry of Public Health, 88/7 Tiwanon Road, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand
During 1999 and 2000 several larvicidal treatments of Bacillus sphaericus strain 2362 water dispersible granular (WDG) formulations were made at 50 to 200 mg/m2 in mosquito developmental sites in low-income communities in Nonthaburi Province, Thailand to determine whether larviciding dense populations would results in a noticeable reduction of adult mosquitoes in small treated areas. In the treated area in 1999 (Soi Jumpa), immature populations were suppressed to extremely low levels for extended periods, especially at the higher dosages. This decline in immature populations was followed by a substantial decline in adult mosquitoes. There was a lag of 7 to 14 days post-larval treatments before maximum decline in adults was noted. Adults that emerged prior to treatments survived for 7-14 days or longer, thus no drastic reduction was noted soon after treatments. Despite a slight resurgence in adult mosquitoes during the middle of the experimental period, adult female mosquitoes (over 98% Cx quinquefasciatus), remained low during the 5-month period of trials. During the last 2 weeks (17 days post last treatment) of the experimental period, female populations reached the pre-treatment level. During the 2000 tests at Wat Pikul reduction in larvae was 87-98% for 7 weeks after first treatment at 200 mg/m2, resulting in a reduction of 24 to 73% (2 and 7 days post-treatment respectively) and 87 to 98 (2-6 weeks) in the adults. In the second and third treatments at 50 mg/m2, larval control and subsequent adult reduction were lower and shorter-lived than at the high dosage, and the fourth treatment at 100 mg/m2 did not yield a high level of reduction in the larvae (18 to 33%), but reduction of adults was still 80%. The final fifth treatment at 200 mg/m2 yielded only 18% control of larvae, suggesting tolerance to B. sphaericus at this site. It was shown that at both treated sites repeated treatments with a larvicide such as B. sphaericus could result in substantial reduction in adult mosquitoes. Vigilance for detection of resistance development should be practiced, as resistance could emerge in certain populations following a few treatments.